Space Research & Planetary Sciences (WP)

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Plasma-driven Sodium Emission at an Io as an "exo-Io" proxy: Fig. 3, Oza et al. 2019, ApJ

The 10-hour image sequence taken over several days by Nick Schneider demonstrates two physical phenomena:

Top panel
Na D1 and D2 doublet sequence. Io orbits backwards and forwards at Jupiter's dawn. The large Na cloud entering the image at Jupiter's dusk is solar reflectance from Europa, although Europa also has its own endogenic source of Na (Brown+ 96; Leblanc+ 2002). The Na clouds and jets at Io are seen to vent directly from Io due to plasma-driven atmospheric sputtering. The additional Na streams at Jupiter's dusk, are independent of Io's location due to dissociative recombination of the ion NaCl+ (see Wilson et al. 2002 for a full review), in the Io-plasma torus.  The three Na sources altogether contribute to a magnanimous rectangular cloud about Jupiter extending to 1000 Jovian radii. 

Bottom panel
S+ sequence. Singly ionized sulfur emission from Io demonstrates the gyration of the Io-plasma torus with Jupiter's magnetic field. 

The two panels are described in Figure 3 of Oza et al. 2019, ApJ in the context of active exomoon (exo-Io) alkaline signatures. The plasma-driven Na loss visibly occurring in this video can be readily estimated at any irradiated rocky body by employing Eqn. 7 of Oza et al. 2019, ApJ.